A B C D-E H-I K-L M-O P R-T U-V
absorbent products: Pads and
garments, disposable or reusable, worn to absorb leaked urine.
Absorbent products include shields, undergarment pads, combination
pad-pant systems, diaperlike garments, and bed pads.
anemia: A condition in which the blood
is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.
anxiety: A debilitating condition of
fear, which interferes with normal life functions.
artificial urinary sphincter
(AUS): Sometimes complicated cases of incontinence require
implantation of a device known as an artificial urinary sphincter.
People who might benefit from this treatment include those who are
incontinent after surgery for prostate cancer or stress
incontinence, trauma victims and people with congenital defects in
the urinary system. The artificial sphincter has three components,
including a pump, balloon reservoir, and a cuff that encircles the
urethra and prevents urine from leaking out. The cuff is connected
to the pump, which is surgically implanted in the scrotum (in men)
or labia (in women). The pump can be activated (usually by squeezing
or pressing a button) to deflate the cuff and permit the bladder to
empty. After a brief interval, the cuff refills itself and the
urethra is again closed. Because the artificial sphincter is an
implant, it is subject to the risks common to implants, such as
infection, erosion (breaking down of tissue) and mechanical
malfunction. Yet with appropriate pre-surgical evaluation, operative
techniques and postoperative follow-up, many problems can be avoided
and incontinent patients can experience an improved quality of life
with this device.
assisted reproductive technologies (ART) :
The new forms of fertility treatment incorporate many methods of
sperm retrieval and preparation. Once the sperm have been processed
to ensure optimal fertilizing potential, they are used in a variety
of procedures that aid the process of conception. These procedures
include artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF),
and sperm microinjection techniques.
autologous: Derived from the same
Different methods to help "retrain" the bladder and get rid of the
urgency to urinate. (see biofeedback, bladder training, electrical
stimulation, habit training, pelvic muscle exercises, prompted
benign prostatic hyperplasia: A condition
in which the prostate becomes enlarged as part of the aging process.
benign tumor: A tumor that is not
bilateral: A term describing a
condition that affects both sides of the body or two paired organs,
such as kidneys.
biofeedback: A procedure that uses
electrodes to help people gain awareness and control of their pelvic
bladder: A hollow muscular balloon
shaped organ that stores urine until it is excreted from the body.
bladder training: A behavioral
technique that teaches the patient to resist or inhibit the urge to
urinate, and to urinate according to a schedule rather than
urinating at the urge.
brachytherapy: Involves the placement
of tiny radioactive pellets into the Prostate gland. By utilizing
ultrasound to place the seed pellets, damage to surrounding tissues
is minimized. Approximately 13,500-16,000 rads of radiation energy
is delivered directly to the Prostate. This procedure is performed
on an outpatient basis. It is a one time procedure with very
effective results. The 10-year follow-up outcome data parallels that
of Radical Prostatectomy.
catheter: A tube passed through the
body for draining fluids or injecting them into body cavities. It
may be made of elastic, elastic web, rubber, glass, metal, or
catheterization: Insertion of
a slender tube through the urethra or through the anterior abdominal
wall into the bladder, urinary reservoir, or urinary conduit to
allow urine drainage.
chancre: A hard, syphilitic primary
ulcer, the first sign of syphilis, appearing approx. 2 to 3 weeks
after infection. The ulcer begins as a painless lesion or papule
that ulcerates. Occurs generally singly, but sometimes may be
chemolysis : Certain types of
kidney stones can be dissolved with the application chemicals. Uric
acid stones, for example, can be dissolved with a solution of sodium
bicarbonate in saline. Cystine stones may be treated successfully
with a combination of acetylcysteine and sodium bicarbonate in
saline. Struvite and carbon apatite stones can be treated with an
acidic solution of hemiacidrin. The procedure involves infusing the
chemical solution into the affected area by means of a ureteral
catheter in a series of treatments over time until the stone is
dissolved. The patient's urine must be cultured regularly throughout
the course of treatment to guard against urinary infection and
prevent the buildup of excessive chemical levels, particularly
magnesium, which can cause other health problems.
colon: The large intestine.
corpora cavernosa: Two chambers in the
penis which run the length of the organ and are filled with spongy
tissue. Blood flows in and fills the open spaces in the spongy
tissue to create an erection.
creatinine: A waste product that is
filtered from the blood by the kidneys and expelled in urine.
cryotherapy: During an operation probes
are placed in the prostate. The probes are then frozen which kills
the prostatic cells.
cystocele: A herniation of bladder
cyst: A lump filled with either fluid or
soft material, occurring in any organ or tissue; may occur for a
number of reasons but is usually harmless unless its presence
disrupts organ or tissue function.
cystectomy: Surgical removal of the
cystoscopy: A flexible scope is
inserted into the urethra and then into the bladder to determine
abnormalities in the bladder and lower urinary tract.
dyssynergia (DESD): Damage to the nervous system can create
a lack of coordination between the bladder and the external
sphincter muscle, which is the muscle that controls the emptying of
the bladder. As a result the bladder cannot empty completely which
creates a buildup of urinary pressure. DESD is a combination of
thses two factors and can lead to severe urinary tract damage and
diabetes mellitus: A common
form of diabetes in which the body cannot properly store or use
glucose (sugar), the body's main source of energy.
diuretic: A drug that increases the
amount of water in the urine, removing excess water from the body;
used in treating high blood pressure and fluid retention
ejaculation: Ejection of semen during
ejaculation, retrograde: The
discharge of semen into the bladder rather than through the urethra
and out of the body.
electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) :This
technique uses a special probe to break up small stones with shock
waves generated by electricity. Through a flexible ureteroscope, the
physician positions the tip of the probe 1 mm from the stone. Then,
by means of a foot switch, the physician projects electrically
generated hydraulic shock waves through an irrigating fluid at the
stone until it is broken into small fragments. These can be passed
by the patient or removed through the previously described
extraction methods. EHL has some limitations: It requires general
anesthesia, and is generally not used in close proximity to the
kidney itself, as the shock waves can cause tissue damage. Fragments
produced by the hydraulic shock also tend to scatter widely, making
retrieval or extraction more difficult.
enterocele: Herniation of small
bowel into vagina
estrogen: Hormones responsible for
the development of female sex characteristics; produced by the
external beam radiation therapy: A 25-28
treatment protocol that utilizes External Beam Radiation.
Approximately 6800-7400 rads of radiation energy is delivered to the
Prostate. There can be some radiation effect on surrounding tissues.
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
(ESWL): Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses highly
focused impulses projected from outside the body to pulverize kidney
habit training: A behavioral
technique that calls for scheduled toileting at regular intervals on
a planned basis. Unlike bladder training, there is no systematic
effort to motivate the patient to delay voiding and resist urge.
hormonal therapy: Involves the use of
anti-androgens. An androgen is a male hormone needed for the
production of testosterone. By depriving the cancer cells of the
testosterone they need for growth, tumors regress in size and
cellular activity. Side effects include gynecomastia, the
enlargement of breast tissue, hot flashes, and loss of libido (
desire to have sex ). Some long term hormonal therapy is associated
with the loss of muscle mass, osteoporosis, and malaise ( loss of
hydrocele: A painless swelling of
the scrotum, caused by a collection of fluid around the testicle;
commonly occurs in middle-aged men.
hypermobility: A condition
characterized in which the pelvic floor muscles can no longer
provide the necessary support to the urethra and bladder neck. As a
result, the bladder neck drops when any downward pressure is applied
and causing involuntary leakage. This condition is the most common
cause of stress urinary incontinence.
hyperplasia: Excessive growth of
normal cells of an organ.
insemination: The placement of
semen into a woman's uterus, cervix, or vagina.
InterStim continence control
therapy: A therapy used in treating urinary retention and
symptoms of overactive bladder, including urinary urge incontinence
and urgency-frequency. Therapy uses a small implanted device to send
mild electrical pulses through a thin wire to the sacral nerve,
which controls the bladder and surrounding muscles. Click here to see
interstitial laser: A laser probe
is placed within prostatic tissue. Laser energy is then used to
destroy prostatic tissue which makes urination easier.
intrinsic sphincter deficiency
(ISD): Weakening of the urethra sphincter muscles. As a
result of this weakening the sphincter does not function normally
regardless of the position of the bladder neck or urethra. This
condition is a common cause of stress urinary intinence.
Involuntary contractions of muscles in the bladder, which can cause
lack of control of urination.
kegel exercises: Exercises is to
strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor, which leads to more
control and prevents leakage.
kidney: One of a pair of organs located
at the back of the abdominal cavity. Kidneys make urine through
kidney stone: A hard mass composed
of substances from the urine that form in the kidneys.
laparoscopy: Surgery using an laparoscope
to visualize internal organ through a small incision. Generally less
invasive than traditional surgeries requiring a shorter recovery
laparoscopic lymph node dissection: If a
perineal prostatectomy is contemplated then prior to the operation
the pelvic lymph nodes are sampled via three small incisions made in
the abdomen, much like the procedure used to remove gallbladders.
lithotripsy: A procedure done to
break up stones in the urinary tract using ultrasonic shock waves,
so that the fragments can be easily passed from the body.
menopause: The period that marks the
permanent cessation of menstrual activity, usually occurring between
the ages of 40 and 58.
metastasis: The spreading of a
cancerous tumor to another part of the body.
microwave (targis): A catheter is
placed within the bladder and positioned within the prostate, then
the antenna emits microwaves. This procedure increases the
passageway allowing for easier urination.
mixed incontinence: Having
both stress and urge incontinence.
nephrectomy: Removal of an entire
open nephrolithotomy: is the most
invasive procedure for removing kidney stones. Because it is so
traumatic, most kidneys can withstand no more than two such
operations. Deep anesthesia is required, after which the surgeon
makes a large (10-20 centimeter) incision in the patient's back or
abdomen, depending upon where the stone is located. Either the
ureter or the kidney isopened and the stone extracted. Most patients
require prolonged hospitalization afterward, and recovery may take
up to two months.
orchiectomy: The surgical removal
of one or both of the testicles.
orchitis: Inflammation of a testicle.
overactive bladder: A
condition characterized by involuntary bladder muscle contractions
during the bladder filling phase which the patient cannot suppress.
overflow UI: Leakage of small amounts
of urine from a bladder that is always full.
percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCN):
Percutaneous means "though the skin." In PCN, the surgeon or
urologist makes a 1-centimeter incision under local anesthesia in
the patient's back, through which an instrument called a nephroscope
is passed directly into the kidney and, if necessary, the ureter.
Smaller stones may be manually extracted. Large ones may need to be
broken up with ultrasonic, electrohydraulic or laser- tipped probes
before they can be extracted. A tube may be inserted into the kidney
pelvic muscle exercises: Pelvic
muscle exercises are intended to improve your pelvic muscle tone and
prevent leakage for sufferers of Stress Urinary Incontinence. Also
called Kegel exercises. (see biofeedback)
injections: A surgical procedure in which injected implants
are used to "bulk up" the area around the neck of the bladder
allowing it to resist increases in abdominal pressure which can push
down on the bladder and cause leakage.
post-void residual (PVR) volume: A
diagnostic test which measures how much urine remains in the bladder
after urination. Specific measurement of PVR volume can be
accomplished by catheterization, pelvic ultrasound, radiography, or
prostaglandin: Any of various
oxygenated unsaturated cyclic fatty acids of animals that have a
variety of hormonelike actions (as in controlling blood pressure or
smooth muscle contraction).
prostate: A muscular, walnut-sized
gland that surrounds part of the urethra. It secretes seminal fluid,
a milky substance that combines with sperm (produced in the
testicles) to form semen.
prostatectomy: Surgical removal
of the prostate.
- suprapubic / retropubic prostatectomy:
This involves the removal of obstructing prostatic tissue through
a supra-pubic incision ( a cut below the belly button ). The
Prostate is not wholly removed. Suprapubic Prostatectomy
requires incising the bladder to remove the obstructing tissue
while a Retropubic approach involves incising the Prostatic
capsule to remove the obstructing tissue. Both approaches utilize
an abdominal incision.
- radical retropubic prostatectomy:
Removal of prostate through an abdominal incision. The prostate is
completely removed. The advantage is that the lymph nodes can be
sampled at the time of the operation and the nerve-sparing
procedure is easier to do via this operation.
- perineal prostatectomy: A Perineal
incision is utilized. The advantages are: less blood loss, easier
visualization of the bladder / urethral anastomosis and decreased
recovery time because the incision does not involve muscle or any
other vital tissue
prostatic stent: Inserted through a
cystoscope, it is a wire device that expands after placement thus
pushing prostate tissue away from passageway allowing for easier
prostatitis: Inflammation of the
prostatron: Also called TUMT or
Transurethral Microwave Thermotherapy. A catheter is placed within
the bladder and positioned within the prostate, then the antenna
emits microwaves. This procedure increases the passageway allowing
for easier urination.
pubovaginal sling: A surgical procedure
in which a man-made or cadaveric piece of material is placed under
the bladder neck to support and immobilize. This technique improves
sphincter function and decreases bladder neck movement, improving
pyelonephritis: Inflammation of
the kidney, usually due to a bacterial infection.
pyuria: The presence of pus in the
urine; usually an indication of kidney or urinary tract infection.
rectocele A herniation of rectum
sexually transmitted disease (STD):
Infections that are most commonly spread through sexual intercourse
or genital contact.
sling procedures: Surgical methods for
treating urinary incontinence involving the placement of a sling,
made either of tissue obtained from the person undergoing the sling
procedure or a synthetic material. The sling is anchored to
retropubic and/or abdominal structures.
sphincter: A ring of muscle fibers
located around an opening in the body that regulates the passage of
stress test: A diagnostic test that
requires patients to lift something or perform an exercise to
determines if there is urine loss when stress is placed on bladder
incontinence: Urinary Incontinence: The involuntary loss of
urine during period of increased abdominal pressure. Such events
include laughing, sneezing, coughing or lifting heavy objects.
testosterone: The sex hormone
that stimulates development of male sex characteristics and bone and
muscle growth; produced by the testicles and in small amounts by the
incontinence: Temporary episodes of urinary incontinence
that are gone when the cause of the episode is identified and
treated, such as a bladder infection.
TUMT (transurethral microwave thermotherapy):
TUNA (transurethral needle ablation): The
instrument is placed into prostate tissue through cystoscope the
tissue between the needles is destroyed via thermal energy.
TURP (transurethral resection of the
prostate): A surgical telescope is used to core out the
inside of the prostate (urethra) creating a larger channel making
the passage of urine easier. This is the gold standard for treatment
ultrasonic lithotripsy : Similar to
ureteroscopy, ultrasonic lithotripsy uses an optical scope and
electronic probe, inserted into the ureter under epidural (spinal)
anesthesia, to locate the stone. High-frequency ultrasound waves
then are directed at the stone to break it up gradually. The
fragments can either be passed naturally by the patient or removed
by grasping forceps, basket extraction or suction through the scope
instrument. The instrument is not flexible, however, so ultrasonic
lithotripsy typically can be employed only when a straight path
directly from outside the body to the stone is possible.
underactive bladder: A
condition characterized by a bladder contraction of inadequate
magnitude and/or duration to effect bladder emptying in a normal
timespan. This condition can be caused by drugs, fecal impaction,
and neurologic conditions such as Diabetic neuropathy or low spinal
cord injury or as a result of radical pelvic surgery. It also can
result from a weakening of the detrusor muscle from vitamin B12
deficiency or idiopathic causes. Bladder underactivity may cause
overdistension of the bladder, resulting in overflow incontinence
(see overflow incontinence).
ureteroscopy: A flexible,
fiberoptic instrument resembling a long, thin telescope is inserted
through the urethra and bladder up to the ureter to visualize the
tube. Often used for retrieval of kidney stones.
urge UI: The involuntary loss of urine
associated with a sudden and strong urge to void (urgency).
urge/urgency: A strong desire to
urinalysis: A group of physical and
chemical tests done on a sample of urine to check for various
disorders, including those of the kidneys and urinary tract.
urinary incontinence:(UI) Involuntary loss
of urine sufficient to be a problem. There are several types of Ul,
but all are characterized by an inability to restrain voiding.
urinary tract infections (UTIs): UTIs are
caused by bacteria that invade the urinary system and multiply,
leading to an infection.
urodynamic tests: Diagnostic
tests to examine the bladder and urethral sphincter function.
vesica sling procedure:
is a surgical sling procedure used to stabilize the bladder
neck and provide support for the urethra using autologous or
synthetic sling material. This procedure treats both hypermobility
varicocelectomy: The cutting
away of a varicocele.
varicocele embolization: An
outpatient procedure in which the varicocele is closed off
(occluded) by means of a balloon catheter (flexible tube with a tiny
detachable balloon), steel coil, and/or sclerosing
vasoepididymostomy A microsurgical
procedure that uses a microscopic camera and very small operative
tools to correct obstructions in the genital tract. The procedure
requires removal of the blockage in the epididymis (the coiled tube
that extends the length of each testis and connects with a larger
duct - the vas deferens) and re-attachment of the epididymis to the
vasovasostomy: Vasovasostomy is
a vasectomy reversal, the re-connection of the severed ends of the
vas deferens restoring the flow of sperm through the vas deferens.
vaportrode: A type of cautery
electrode that vaporizes Prostatic tissue. This creates a larger
prostatic channel which makes urination easier.